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Can I view this online? Ask a librarian. Similar Items Quran, the fundamental law of human life : being a commentary of the Holy Quran keeping in view the phil Kuliah umum th. Mahfud MD This bait, as it inhaunced his fame, so it added to his retinue; for as multitudes, affecting novelty, and a mutation of condition, daily added themselves to his party; so slaves from all parts of Arabia forsook their Masters, and fled to him as their Redeemer, and embraced his Law, as the means of their salvation.
These through a fond conceit of his piety, ready to sacrifice their lives at his command, he divided into troops, and sent to rob the Caravans of Merchants that travelled through the desarts; and by this means, having added to his treasure by spoil; and his retinue daily encreasing by a multitude of Fugitives and Vagabonds, who by reason of this liberty, to act any villany, resorted to him; he at length took up thoughts of imploying them in the confirmation of his Law, which he knew to be the ready way to his establishment, in that power to which he aspired.
In other words, Mahomet is a rabble-rouser and a revolutionary: he is Cromwell.
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He is the leader of a band of fugitives and vagabonds who delight in robbery and pillage and who glorify their actions through invoking liberty; a batch of dissolute villains who gleefully trample underfoot the doctrines of Orthodox Christianity and the prerogatives of the Church. Indeed, Mahomet is Cromwell, or perhaps Cromwell is Mahomet.
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Thomas Ross cannot say either way, for his troubles would be much greater than those he already had with the Council of State. Arrested in on suspicion of treason in an affair that had nothing to do with his Quran translation , he was later released on bail; he later went to Cologne to join Charles II in exile.
As royalists and parliamentarians insulted each other through comparisons with Muhammad, just as Catholics and Protestants had begun doing in the 16th century, the polemical edge of such comparisons became blunted. In the quarrels over religious and political systems, Islam became one rival faith among many, neither better nor worse than many of the Christian denominations; the religious toleration of the Ottoman Empire became for some Englishmen a model.
Yet none of these authors presented the prophet Muhammad as a positive figure. Stubbe describes the Muslim prophet as a great reformer who fought the superstition and illegitimate power of Christian clergy and sought to return to a pure, unsullied monotheism. Stubbe becomes the first European non-Muslim to present the prophet in such glowing terms.
His Muhammad fits well the model of the benevolent monarch of Leviathan , using the precepts of a simple, natural religion to enforce morality and uphold authority, without handing over power to a caste of grasping priests. Like Muhammad, the king should strip the priests of their power and ban superstitious doctrine, returning to the simple, rational monotheism of the early Christians.
In other words, Charles II should become a new Muhammad.
If isolation can be prevented so that rational thoughts and positive influences can prevail, often this is all that it takes Post , In all likelihood the individual will go forth and meet the violent expectations of the group, the psychological effects and dynamics of the collective are just simply too powerful Hoffer ; Post , Once isolated within the confines of the group there is usually an initiation process which binds these individuals together. This initiation process is also the glue that binds, affixes, and guarantees their commitment in the future to the organization.
In relative isolation with other terrorists, beliefs are strengthened, discipline is instilled, training is facilitated, and new skills e. Within the terrorist camp or cell, the terrorist feels part of something greater, he feels whole, perhaps for the first time in his life. In isolation, the relative merit of each individual is determined through a vetting process unique to each terrorist organization Combs , Some are more rigid and stringent than others.
Obviously, not all terrorists are up to the same task. Large terrorist organizations have the capacity to pick and choose the best and brightest to insure that limited human resources terrorists are most effectively utilized. That is not that unusual. Training follows the vetting process, which allows for the personal abilities and agilities to surface. Those that are proficient with firearms become the snipers, assassins, or marksmen.
Those who feel comfortable around explosives learn to create improvised explosive devices IED , so essential to modern terror. Those that evolve a hands-on approach perfect the morbid art of manual assassination through stabbing and beheading. While others will serve as couriers, administrators, communicators, and go-betweens Combs , ; Moreau, et al. Like a corporation, terrorists will find a niche, a way to contribute to the cause in their own way. With training and coaching , the terrorist is soon ready to move on, to act out, to terrorize.
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Before each terrorist act, there is one final phase of isolation. Not mental isolation but rather the necessary isolation from society to commit the terrorist act. This usually requires some sort of hiding out while preparing. Here they would spend the final few days getting mentally prepared, cleaning weapons, readying their equipment, rehearsing their final actions, making sure no one was on to them.
It appears that the alleged terrorist, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, did the same thing in Yemen. Once operations are planned, coordinated, approved by higher authority, and rehearsed, then it is time to act. Functional isolation at this stage is necessary. The terrorist needs to separate from others and arm himself for the task. All terrorist acts require this final separation to carry out their deeds.
Be it for a few hours or for a few months, this final phase is necessary because at this point that which has been concealed and guarded will soon come to light.
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Premature exposure or mistakes cannot be afforded. It is at this phase that it becomes dangerous for all concerned: the terrorist, the public, law enforcement. The terrorist is primed for action and any interference with the plan could have negative consequences. Weapons and explosives are in hand, devices have been armed, the terrorist is nervously on edge, paranoia is heightened. At this stage it is too late, all that is past is prologue. The terrorist is singularly focused, energized and primed. At this point all that remains is the execution of the plan; death and destruction will follow.
Which is why we need to focus on these two key criteria: subscription to an unyielding ideology that requires violence and isolation of the individual. These two components give us insight into the psychopathology of terror. Unfortunately in the case of Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab they were ignored, a mistake we can ill afford to make again, especially when there were pre-event indicators as well as the compelling warning by a concerned father.
For further information please consult the bibliography below or contact me at www. You can follow me on twitter at: navarrotells.
New York: W. Dees, Morris and James Corcoran. New York: Harper Collins. Dyer, Joel. Harvest of rage : why Oklahoma city is only the beginning. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Dyson, William E. Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the mind of God: the global rise of religious violence. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Navarro, Joe. Hunting terrorists: a look at the psychopathology of terror.
Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publishers. Navarro, Joe and John R. Universal principles of criminal behavior: a tool for analyzing criminal intent. Post, Jerrold M. Leaders and their followers in a dangerous world. Assessing leaders at a distance: the political personality profile. The mind of the terrorist: individual and group psychology of terrorist behavior. Terrorist psycho-logic: terrorist behavior as a product of psychological forces.
In Origins of Terrorism: psychologies, ideologies, theologies, states of mind , Walter Reich, ed. This young man was far from lonely, he was the president of a London Muslim student association. Stop attributing terror to individual personality disorders, the problem is Islam itself.